Global Pentaerythritol Market Analysis 2015-2019 and Forecast 2020-2025

Date : Apr 2020

Formats :
Report Code : PMR94131081

Category : Material and Chemicals
No Of Pages : 112
Snapshot
Pentaerythritol, white crystal or powder, flammable, susceptible to general organic acid ester, a large number of coatings for industrial production of alkyd resins, synthetic advanced lubricants, plasticizers, surfactants and pharmaceuticals, explosives and other raw materials.
The global Pentaerythritol market size is estimated at xxx million USD with a CAGR xx% from 2015-2019 and is expected to reach xxx Million USD in 2020 with a CAGR xx% from 2020 to 2025. The report begins from overview of Industry Chain structure, and describes industry environment, then analyses market size and forecast of Pentaerythritol by product, region and application, in addition, this report introduces market competition situation among the vendors and company profile, besides, market price analysis and value chain features are covered in this report.
Product Type Coverage Market Size & Forecast, Major Company of Product Type etc.:
Pentaerythritol -95
Pentaerythritol -98
Others
Company Coverage Company Profile, Sales Revenue, Price, Gross Margin, Main Products etc.:
Ercros SA
Celanese Corp.
Holding AB
Pertsorp
Evonik
Zarja Chemical
Yunnan Yuntianhua
Ruiyang Chemical
Henan Pengcheng Group
Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry
Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd.
Mitsui Chemicals Inc.
U-Jin Chemical
Shahid Rasouli
MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya
Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited
Copenor
Application Coverage Market Size & Forecast, Different Demand Market by Region, Main Consumer Profile etc.:
Alkyd Paints
Alkyd Inks
Alkyd Adhesives and Sealants
Others
Region Coverage Regional Production, Demand & Forecast by Countries etc.:
North America U.S., Canada, Mexico
Europe Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain etc.
Asia-Pacific China, India, Japan, Southeast Asia etc.
South America Brazil, Argentina etc.
Middle East & Africa Saudi Arabia, South Africa etc.
Table of Content

1 Industry Overview
1.1 Pentaerythritol Industry
Figure Pentaerythritol Industry Chain Structure
1.1.1 Overview
1.1.2 Development of Pentaerythritol
1.2 Market Segment
1.2.1 Upstream
Table Upstream Segment of Pentaerythritol
1.2.2 Downstream
Table Application Segment of Pentaerythritol
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2025, by Application, in USD Million
1.3 Cost Analysis
2 Industry Environment PEST Analysis
2.1 Policy
2.2 Economics
2.3 Sociology
2.4 Technology
3 Pentaerythritol Market by Type
3.1 By Type
3.1.1 Pentaerythritol -95
Table Major Company List of Pentaerythritol -95
3.1.2 Pentaerythritol -98
Table Major Company List of Pentaerythritol -98
3.1.3 Others
Table Major Company List of Others
3.2 Market Size
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Type, in USD Million
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2015-2019, by Type, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Type, in Volume
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2015-2019, by Type, in Volume
3.3 Market Forecast
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Type, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Type, in Volume
4 Major Companies List
4.1 Ercros SA Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.1.1 Ercros SA Profile
Table Ercros SA Overview List
4.1.2 Ercros SA Products & Services
4.1.3 Ercros SA Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Ercros SA Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.2 Celanese Corp. Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.2.1 Celanese Corp. Profile
Table Celanese Corp. Overview List
4.2.2 Celanese Corp. Products & Services
4.2.3 Celanese Corp. Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Celanese Corp. Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.3 Holding AB Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.3.1 Holding AB Profile
Table Holding AB Overview List
4.3.2 Holding AB Products & Services
4.3.3 Holding AB Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Holding AB Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.4 Pertsorp Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.4.1 Pertsorp Profile
Table Pertsorp Overview List
4.4.2 Pertsorp Products & Services
4.4.3 Pertsorp Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Pertsorp Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.5 Evonik Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.5.1 Evonik Profile
Table Evonik Overview List
4.5.2 Evonik Products & Services
4.5.3 Evonik Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Evonik Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.6 Zarja Chemical Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.6.1 Zarja Chemical Profile
Table Zarja Chemical Overview List
4.6.2 Zarja Chemical Products & Services
4.6.3 Zarja Chemical Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Zarja Chemical Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.7 Yunnan Yuntianhua Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.7.1 Yunnan Yuntianhua Profile
Table Yunnan Yuntianhua Overview List
4.7.2 Yunnan Yuntianhua Products & Services
4.7.3 Yunnan Yuntianhua Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Yunnan Yuntianhua Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.8 Ruiyang Chemical Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.8.1 Ruiyang Chemical Profile
Table Ruiyang Chemical Overview List
4.8.2 Ruiyang Chemical Products & Services
4.8.3 Ruiyang Chemical Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Ruiyang Chemical Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.9 Henan Pengcheng Group Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.9.1 Henan Pengcheng Group Profile
Table Henan Pengcheng Group Overview List
4.9.2 Henan Pengcheng Group Products & Services
4.9.3 Henan Pengcheng Group Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Henan Pengcheng Group Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.10 Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.10.1 Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry Profile
Table Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry Overview List
4.10.2 Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry Products & Services
4.10.3 Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.11 Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.11.1 Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. Profile
Table Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. Overview List
4.11.2 Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. Products & Services
4.11.3 Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.12 Mitsui Chemicals Inc. Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.12.1 Mitsui Chemicals Inc. Profile
Table Mitsui Chemicals Inc. Overview List
4.12.2 Mitsui Chemicals Inc. Products & Services
4.12.3 Mitsui Chemicals Inc. Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Mitsui Chemicals Inc. Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin
4.13 U-Jin Chemical Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.13.1 U-Jin Chemical Profile
Table U-Jin Chemical Overview List
4.13.2 U-Jin Chemical Products & Services
4.13.3 U-Jin Chemical Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of U-Jin Chemical Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin
4.14 Shahid Rasouli Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.14.1 Shahid Rasouli Profile
Table Shahid Rasouli Overview List
4.14.2 Shahid Rasouli Products & Services
4.14.3 Shahid Rasouli Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Shahid Rasouli Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin
4.15 MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.15.1 MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya Profile
Table MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya Overview List
4.15.2 MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya Products & Services
4.15.3 MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin
4.16 Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.16.1 Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited Profile
Table Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited Overview List
4.16.2 Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited Products & Services
4.16.3 Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin
4.17 Copenor Company Profile, Sales Data etc.
4.17.1 Copenor Profile
Table Copenor Overview List
4.17.2 Copenor Products & Services
4.17.3 Copenor Business Operation Conditions
Table Business Operation of Copenor Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin
5 Market Competition
5.1 Company Competition
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Revenue 2015-2019, by Company, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Revenue Share 2015-2019, by Company, in USD Million
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Sales Revenue Share in 2019, by Company, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Volume 2015-2019, by Company, in Volume
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Volume Share 2015-2019, by Company, in Volume
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Sales Volume Share in 2019, by Company, in Volume
5.2 Regional Market by Company
Figure North America Pentaerythritol Market Concentration, in 2019
Figure Europe Pentaerythritol Market Market Concentration, in 2019
Figure Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol MMarket Concentration, in 2019
Figure South America Pentaerythritol Market Concentration, in 2019
Figure Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Concentration, in 2019
6 Demand by End Market
6.1 Demand Situation
6.1.1 Demand in Alkyd Paints
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Paints, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Paints, 2015-2019, in Volume
6.1.2 Demand in Alkyd Inks
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Inks, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Inks, 2015-2019, in Volume
6.1.3 Demand in Alkyd Adhesives and Sealants
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Adhesives and Sealants, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Adhesives and Sealants, 2015-2019, in Volume
6.1.4 Demand in Others
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Others, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Others, 2015-2019, in Volume
6.2 Regional Demand Comparison
Table Regional Demand Comparison List
Table Major Application in Different Regions
6.3 Demand Forecast
Table Pentaerythritol Demand Forecast 2020-2025, by Application, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2020-2025, by Application, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Market Share in 2025, by Application, in USD Million
Table Pentaerythritol Demand Forecast 2020-2025, by Application, in Volume
Table Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2020-2025, by Application, in Volume
Table Pentaerythritol Market Share in 2025, by Application, in Volume
7 Region Operation
7.1 Regional Production
Table Pentaerythritol Production 2015-2019, by Region, in USD Million
Table Pentaerythritol Production 2015-2019, by Region, in Volume
7.2 Regional Market
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Region, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Share 2015-2019, by Region, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Region, in Volume
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Share 2015-2019, by Region, in Volume
7.3 by Region
7.3.1 North America
7.3.1.1 Overview
Figure North America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure North America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
7.3.1.2 by Country U.S., Canada, Mexico
Table North America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table North America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
7.3.2 Europe
7.3.2.1 Overview
Figure Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
7.3.2.2 by Country Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain etc.
Table Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
7.3.3 Asia-Pacific
7.3.3.1 Overview
Figure Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
7.3.3.2 by Country China, India, Japan, Southeast Asia etc.
Table Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
7.3.4 South America
7.3.4.1 Overview
Figure South America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure South America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
7.3.4.2 by Country Brazil, Argentina etc.
Table South America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table South America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
7.3.5 Middle East & Africa
7.3.5.1 Overview
Figure Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
7.3.5.2 by Country Saudi Arabia, South Africa etc.
Table Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
7.4 Regional Import & Export
7.5 Regional Forecast
Table Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Region, in USD Million
Table Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Region, in Volume
8 Marketing & Price
8.1 Price and Margin
8.1.1 Price Trends
8.1.2 Factors of Price Change
Table Price Factors List
8.1.3 Manufacturers Gross Margin Analysis
8.2 Marketing Channel
Figure Marketing Channels Overview
9 Research Conclusion
List of Table

List of Table

Table Upstream Segment of Pentaerythritol
Table Application Segment of Pentaerythritol
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2025, by Application, in USD Million
Table Major Company List of Pentaerythritol -98
Table Major Company List of Others
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Type, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Type, in Volume
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Type, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Type, in Volume
Table Ercros SA Overview List
Table Business Operation of Ercros SA (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Celanese Corp. Overview List
Table Business Operation of Celanese Corp. (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Holding AB Overview List
Table Business Operation of Holding AB (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Pertsorp Overview List
Table Business Operation of Pertsorp (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Evonik Overview List
Table Business Operation of Evonik (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Zarja Chemical Overview List
Table Business Operation of Zarja Chemical (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Yunnan Yuntianhua Overview List
Table Business Operation of Yunnan Yuntianhua (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Ruiyang Chemical Overview List
Table Business Operation of Ruiyang Chemical (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Henan Pengcheng Group Overview List
Table Business Operation of Henan Pengcheng Group (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry Overview List
Table Business Operation of Baoding Guoxiu Chemical Industry (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. Overview List
Table Business Operation of Hubei Yihua Group Co. Ltd. (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Mitsui Chemicals Inc. Overview List
Table Business Operation of Mitsui Chemicals Inc. (Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table U-Jin Chemical Overview List
Table Business Operation of U-Jin Chemical (Sales Revenue, Sales Volume, Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Shahid Rasouli Overview List
Table Business Operation of Shahid Rasouli (Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya Overview List
Table Business Operation of MKS Marmara Entegre Kimya (Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited Overview List
Table Business Operation of Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited (Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Copenor Overview List
Table Business Operation of Copenor (Sales Revenue, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Revenue 2015-2019, by Company, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Revenue Share 2015-2019, by Company, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Volume 2015-2019, by Company, in Volume
Table Global Pentaerythritol Sales Volume Share 2015-2019, by Company, in Volume
Table Regional Demand Comparison List
Table Major Application in Different Regions
Table Pentaerythritol Demand Forecast 2020-2025, by Application, in USD Million
Table Pentaerythritol Demand Forecast 2020-2025, by Application, in Volume
Table Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2020-2025, by Application, in Volume
Table Pentaerythritol Market Share in 2025, by Application, in Volume
Table Pentaerythritol Production 2015-2019, by Region, in USD Million
Table Pentaerythritol Production 2015-2019, by Region, in Volume
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Region, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Share 2015-2019, by Region, in USD Million
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market 2015-2019, by Region, in Volume
Table Global Pentaerythritol Market Share 2015-2019, by Region, in Volume
Table North America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table North America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
Table Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
Table Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
Table South America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table South America Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
Table Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in USD Million
Table Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size 2015-2019, by Country, in Volume
Table Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Region, in USD Million
Table Pentaerythritol Market Forecast 2020-2025, by Region, in Volume
Table Price Factors List
List of Figure

Figure Pentaerythritol Industry Chain Structure
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2015-2019, by Type, in USD Million
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2015-2019, by Type, in Volume
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Sales Revenue Share in 2019, by Company, in USD Million
Figure Global Pentaerythritol Sales Volume Share in 2019, by Company, in Volume
Figure North America Pentaerythritol Market Concentration, in 2019
Figure Europe Pentaerythritol Market Market Concentration, in 2019
Figure Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol MMarket Concentration, in 2019
Figure South America Pentaerythritol Market Concentration, in 2019
Figure Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Concentration, in 2019
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Paints, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Paints, 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Inks, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Inks, 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Adhesives and Sealants, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Alkyd Adhesives and Sealants, 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Others, 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Demand in Others, 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Pentaerythritol Market Growth 2020-2025, by Application, in USD Million
Figure Pentaerythritol Market Share in 2025, by Application, in USD Million
Figure North America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure North America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Europe Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Asia-Pacific Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure South America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure South America Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in USD Million
Figure Middle East & Africa Pentaerythritol Market Size and Growth 2015-2019, in Volume
Figure Marketing Channels Overview


  Purchase Options for Report

Need More information

Call us :
USA : +1 7162930123
UK : +44 7482875569
....
sales@planetmarketreports.com

Why to choose PMR

PMR Market Research

Our syndicated research reports cover 50+ industry sectors offering you product and country wise breakup of the market along with niche data and insights that will help you make informed business decision. Our research is focused on the key segments of an industry that possess opportunities of growth.

  • Industrial ...
  • Business ....
  • Consumer ....
  • Peer ....

About Report

Planet Market Reports added Latest and detailed market study report that focuses on “Global Pentaerythritol Market" Which offers essential information based on fresh ideas into Global Pentaerythritol Market industry along with unique market analysis which covers current top Manufactures in Global Pentaerythritol Market, growth, Consumption Demand, challenges, Historical data, subjects wise Survey of each chapters, Regional Insights, and Advancing industry trends, which will help our clients to aim Global Pentaerythritol Market. In addition, the report helps the customers to get a brief idea about Future demand and specifications of products which ensures the driving long-term income and productivity of global market.